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Year - 2023Volume - 1Issue - 2Pages - 130-140

Therapeutic Potential of Formulations Of Shankha Bhasma

 14 Dec 2023  242

About Author

Balpande D1,Kubde D2,
1 PG Scholar, Dept of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Bhausaheb mulak ayurvedic mahavidyalaya, nandanvan, Nagpur
2 Professor and HOD, Dept of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, Bhausaheb mulak ayurvedic mahavidyalaya, nandanvan, Nagpur

Correspondence Address

Rahul Residency Flat no 408, Wing A Ganeshpeth, Nagpur. Near Vidarbha bazar.
Contact No. : 9561502101, Email : Vrushubalpande95@gmail.com

Date of Acceptance : 25 Dec 2023

Date of Publication : 31 Dec 2023

Article ID : SD-IJAY_044

How to cite this article : http://doi.org/10.55552/SDNJAY.2023.1213

Abstract

One of the drugs of animal origins described in Rasashastra is shankha (conch shell). Shankha is categorized under several names in different sources, including Shukla Varga, Sudha Varga, and Uparasa Varga. Since the Vedic era, it has been used medicinally to cure a variety of illnesses. Aim and objective :The current study's objective is to gather the Shankha Bhasma formulations that are mentioned in the book Bharat Bhaishayaj Ratnakar and determine their potential for medicinal use.  Material & Method : From each of the five volumes of Bharat Bheshaja Ratnakar, every formulation containing Shankha bhasma is examined, and then it is further divided into groups based on the dosage forms. Observation & results: A total of 114 formulations containing shankha bhasma that are prescribed for the treatment of gastrointestinal problems and other conditions like hyperacidity (Amlapitta), irritable bowel syndrome (Grahani), abdominal colic (Udarshula), duodenal ulcers (Parinamshula), and diarrhea (Atisara) have been studied. disorders of the skin and eyes. It is recommended that these formulas be taken in several dose forms, including varti, tablets, and powder. Conclusion: The current study will be helpful in identifying more recent Shankha bhasma formulations and their medicinal uses in a range of illnesses.

Introduction

Ayurvedic pharmaceutics' science of alchemy and the creation of medications from substances derived from plants, minerals, metals, and animals is known as rasashastra. The medications are categorized based on their uses. One such medication that Sudha Varga Dravys mentions in Rasashastra is Shankha (Conch Shell)."The substance which pacifies evil or calamity" is the literal meaning of the word "Shankha" [1]. An animal's conical or oblong shell is called a shankha. The majority of water sources offer it. Since the Vedic era, it has been used medicinally to cure a variety of illnesses. The round-bodied, smooth-surfaced Shankha with a little hole near the base that shines cleanly and brightly like a full moon, and the longer one.

Ayurvedic writings describe two basic types of Shankha: Vamavarta Shankha (left sided opening) and Dakshinavrta Shankha (right sided opening). Conversely, the Dakshinavarta Shankha is a more uncommon type of conch shell. It is used in temples to blow during prayers and is seen as beneficial because it is scarce.In terms of therapy, it can balance out all three Doshas. Vamavarta Shankha is widely accessible. It is the one that is utilized to prepare all other compound formulations as well as for purification and incineration. As per the Rasatarangini, the Amla Dravya is the primary location for the Shodhan (purification) of Shankha. This is carried out in Nimbuka, Jambir Nimbu, Tanduliya, Kanji, and Jayanti Patra Swarasa. Shankha is put through Maran (Incineration) after purification, when it becomes white bhasma.

Shankha is categorized under several names in different sources, including Shukla Varga by Rasarnava, Dhanvantarinighantu, and Rasanighantu. Uparasa Varga by Bhavprakasha nighatu, Dhanvantari nighantu, Rasaratnakar, Rasendrachintamani, Rasendra Sara Samgraha, and Ayurveda Prakasha are among the works attributed to Rasamritam, Kaideva Nighantu, Bhavprakasha Nighantu, and Sudha Varga by Bhavprakasha Nighantu. Shankha Bhasma is associated with several illnesses, including hyperacidity (Amlapitta), irritable bowel syndrome (Grahani), abdominal colic (Udarshula), duodenal ulcers (Parinamshula), diarrhea (Atisara), and many more. It also possesses qualities similar to Madhura, Laghu, and Seeta [3]. Therefore, gathering the formulations containing Shankha Bhasma as specified in Bharat Bhaishayaj Ratnakar and determining its therapeutic potential is the goal of the current study..

Discussion

Ayurvedic pharmaceutical formulations, or pharmaceutics, are a significant aspect of Ayurveda that have progressively developed from basic forms to more complicated forms based on combinations of herbs and minerals. Many pharmaceutical preparations, including those produced for medicinal purposes, such as Anjana (collyrium), Bhasma, Churna (powder), Kashaya (decoction), Lepa (topical applications), Varti (suppository), and Vati (tablets), are described in all literature. Five volumes, Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakara, were authored during the 20th century by Vaidya Nagindas Chaganlal Shah.  It is an assemblage of formulas for herbs, minerals, and herbominerals that have been previously published in Rasa books. Table 1 displays a total of 114 formulations in various dosage forms that include Shankha Bhasma as one of the ingredients.

Each of these formulations has a unique therapeutic potential and is recommended for a range of conditions, including hyperacidity (Amlapitta), irritable bowel syndrome (Grahani), abdominal colic (Udarshula), duodenal ulcers (Parinamshula), and diarrhea (Atisara). 69 of the 114 formulations are in tablet form, which is the most popular form because to its easy administration, non-palatability, and precise dosing [5].  In therapeutics, anupana is essential. Certain formulations necessitate special Anupana, such as Shankhodara Rasa, which should be taken with Navneet. Common anupanas include ginger juice, honey, and warm water. Anuapan is a carrier that aids in getting the medication to the intended organ and may also increase its effectiveness. Additionally, it facilitates quick digestion and absorption.

Applying medication to the inner side of the lower lid using the fingertip or an Anjanashalaka (probe) in the form of Gutika, Raskriya, or Churna (powder) is known as Anjana kalpana (application of collyrium) [7]. The BBR offers ten different Anjana formulations, among which Shankhadyanjana significantly reduced the breadth of Avrana Shukla (Corneal opacity) [8]. For the treatment of eye, skin, respiratory tract, and oral cavity conditions, Manashiladyanjana, a different formulation of Shankha bhasma and Manasila (Red arsenic), is recommended [9]. When it comes to ophthalmia neonatorum, Haritkyadyanjana in the form of Haritkyadi eye drops is demonstrating notable outcomes [10]. Bhasma refers to ash that has been calcined after a mineral, gem, or metal has been purified and treated by triturating it in herbal extracts. then burning, which came next. In addition to increasing the drug's surface area, nanoparticles have distinct therapeutic potential and aid in the drug's effective delivery to the target region [11].   Only two Bhasmas BBR have been reported for gastrointestinal disorders: Laghushankha Bhasma, which has been shown to have antiulcer properties in rats, and Chincha Shankha Bhasma [12]. The term "churna" (powder formulations) refers to powders made from dried forms of one or more medications combined. Specific Churna formulations are created by gathering the pharmaceuticals listed in the formulations, powdering each one separately, and then preparing a fine powder using an 85-number sieve, which is then combined with a specific amount [13]. Approximately six Churna formulations are described in BBR.

It has also been discovered that Putikaranjyam Churna (Caesalpinia bonducella Linn.) has a calming, anti-inflammatory effect, making it very advantageous for treating an enlarged prostate [14]. Dusting powder Shankha Nabhichurna, so named because of its constituents, has been effectively utilized to reduce symptoms and irritation in children with diaper dermatitis[15]. Shankha Churna is utilized to treat gastrointestinal disorders because, in contrast to expectations, it significantly enhanced gastric acid in a pharmacological study [16].

pharmaceutical procedure called Sneha Kalpana (Medicated Fatty Formulations) is used to make oleaginous medications. In Ayurveda, it might be referred to as a lipophilic substance. Ghrita and Taila are two outstanding instances of how food formats are used to deliver medications. A liposome is a Snehakalpana micro-unit that can target a cell either internally or topically by carrying an active component [17]. Karpuradi Taila (Camphor oil), one of the two Taila formulations and one Ghrita formulation that BBR described, has the ability to lessen pain, cramps, stiffness, and numbness. It contains sesame oil, Shankha Bhasma, and camphor (Cinnamomum camphora Linn.) [18]. External application of the herbal preparation is done with Lepa Kalpana (Topical dose form). In Lepa Kalpana, many herbal medications are consumed as powders and triturated with various media to used externally as Lepa in the form of paste [19]. There are nine different lepa formulations described in BBR, and Gunjadi lepa works well in Vrana and Kushtha [20]. Shankhadi.Because they contain Sarjikshar and Shankha, lepa, Swarjikadi lepa, and Haritaladi lepa exhibit Lomashatana feature [21]. 

A well-known Ayurvedic preparation called Modaka Kalpana (tablet preparation) is made by combining finely ground medication powders with jiggery, or Guda [22]. Shankha bhasma-containing Guduchyadi Modaka is highly beneficial for digestive issues. Additionally, it has antispasmodic, antipyretic, and anti-diabetic properties [23]. Formation of Suppository Varti Kalpana fundamentally falls under "Vati" Kalpana. Shape and purpose are the primary differences. Vatis are circular in shape, but Vartis are elongated with tapering ends. Vartis are applied both inside and externally. Vartis are categorized into various categories according on the organ and action [24].  There are twelve Varti preparations in BBR, and among them is Shankha Bhasma. Chandrodaya Varti is utilized in a number of eye ailments, including Cataract, Pterygium, Granular Eyelid Disorder, Itching, Conjunctivitis, and Night Blindness [25]. The term "Vati" refers to tablet preparations, or Vati Kalpana, that are made as pills. These consist of one or more medications derived from minerals, plants, and animals. Vati is a term for finely ground pharmaceutical powder that is manufactured in different sizes and combined with different liquid medium [26].

Agnikumar Rasa observed that 69 of the pill formulations listed in BBR were successful in treating dyspepsia and appetite loss [27]. Treatment for digestive issues involves the administration of Hiranya Garbha Pottali Rasa [28]. The Amlapiita diseases and the gastrointestinal disorders make extensive use of Sutshekhar Rasa [29], Shankha Vati [30], and Shankha Dravaka Rasa [31]. Shankha is advised in hyperacidity because of its ability to lower Pitta Vitiations. These combinations are recommended for certain conditions, but each Ayurvedic composition also has the added benefit of functioning on multiple levels to offer therapeutic benefits due to the synergistic effect of each medicine. They can therefore function as several treatments. As previously said, in numerous ailments, numerous formulas have still to be verified on their effectiveness. Therefore, additional research is needed.

Conclusion

About 114 Ayurvedic formulations containing Shankha bhasma in various dose forms have been mentioned by Bharat Bhaishajya Ratnakar; these formulations are primarily utilized for digestive ailments. By significantly modifying the basic medications, several dosage forms are created for improved absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Since treating digestive disorders is a broad topic, Shankha bhasma formulations can offer side-effect-free gastro-intestinal protective medications. The current analysis will be helpful in identifying more recent formulations and their potential therapeutic uses. Patients with digestive and other diseases will benefit if further research of this kind is conducted using different formulations.

 

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