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Year - 2023Volume - 1Issue - 2Pages - 58-64

Role of Finger Millet, Pearl Millet and Foxtail Millet in Osteoporosis.

 12 Dec 2023  218

About Author

Nishane D1,Dachewar D2,
1 P.G. Scholar, Kayachikitsa Department , Shri Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Hanuman Nagar, Nagpur 440024
2 Professor and HOD Kayachikitsa Department, Shri Ayurved Mahavidyalaya, Nagpur, Maharashtra

Correspondence Address

Plot no 116, chandanshesh nagar, hudkeshwar road, Nagpur.
Contact No. : 8484088607, Email : rakhinishane11@gmail.com

Date of Acceptance : 16 Dec 2023

Date of Publication : 31 Dec 2023

Article ID : SD-IJAY_043

How to cite this article : " http://doi.org/10.55552/SDNJAY.2023.1207"

Abstract

Objectives- Osteoporosis is a chronic, metabolic, progressive bone disease which is characterized by decrease in bone density and increased bone fragility resulting in increase the risk of fracture. It is the most common bone disease affecting one in three women and one in

five men over the age of 50 years Worldwide.The study is aimed to decrease such conditions using dietary suppliments like Finger milletand Pearl millet.
Methodology- This review study is carried out using scientific material related to millets used in osteoporosis, Asthikshaya. Ayurveda literature, journals, research papers, online database regarding Millets, osteoporosis and other relevant topics are reviewed for the study.
Result- To prevent osteoporosis and osteopenia, calcium and vitamin D suppliments are required. Dietary based calcium and vitamin D suppliments are easier to practice. Finger millet ( ragi, Eleusine coracana), Pearl millet ( bajra, pennisetum glaucum) and Foxtail millet
(kangani, Setaria italica) are rich source of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorous, vitamin B12 etc. and also they are easily digestable. Madhur, tikta, kashaya rasa, ushna virya, madhur vipak of ragi, bajra and kangani are also mentioned in ayurvedic text which helps in balancing vata dosha which is helpful in asthikshaya.
Conclusion- Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures leads to significant decrease in quality of life with increased morbidty, mortality and disability in individual. Finger millets, pearl millet and foxtail millet contributes to high calcium retention and high bioavailblity of calcium and could be useful for healthy bone growth and decrease depletion of bone tissue i.e. asthikshay.
Key words- Millets, Osteoporosis, Finger millet, Pearl millet, Foxtail millet Asthikshay, Osteopenia

Introduction

Osteoporosis is a chronic, metabolic, progressive bone disease which is characterized by decrease in bone density and increased bone fragility resulting in increase the risk of fracture due to deterioration of bone tissue and disruption of bone architecture, compromised bone strength.  It is the most common bone disease, Worldwide over 200 million people have osteoporosis affecting one in three women and one in five men over the age of 50 years. Approximately 9 million fracture occur per year as a result of osteoporosis.  Population based studies in India show prevalence of osteoporosis in male as 3% and female as 8% according to ICMR report1. It means women have higher chances of developing osteoporosis. There is a higher risk of Osteoporosis in financially and educationally lower class due to insufficient nutrition.

osteoporosis is a “silent disease”,because there are no symptoms prior to a fracture. However, once a person has broken a bone, their risk of breaking another fragility fracture increases. It is becoming an urgent and serious global epidemic.Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it. In Ayurveda, the depletion of the bone tissue is called Asthikshaya. This is due to nutrient deficiency because of malnutrition and imbalance of Vata dosha2,3.

Instead of taking pharmaceutical drugs food supplemented with required nutrients (calcium and vitamin D3) could help to overcome osteoporosis. Millets like sorghum (Jowar), pearl millet (Bajra), finger millet (Ragi), foxtail millet (Kakum), proso millet (Chenak), little millet (Kutki), kodo millet (Kodon), barnyard millet (Sanwa),and brown top millet.Ragi or finger millet  can be used. Finger millet is richest source of calcium and phosphorus4. Pearl millet is second rich source of calcium also rich in vitamin D also Foxtail millet contains copious calcium.

Discussion

Now it is an established fact that the whole world is facing many health challenges because of fiberless foods. It is also clear to patients that all the lifestyle diseases can be made to disappear just by eating millets and removing refined foods. To prevent the risk of developing osteoporosis one should eat a well-balanced diet. There is an increasing trend in research, focusing on the application of alternative grains such as ragi (finger millet) and bajra (pearl millet) which are potentially healthy to prevent the calcium deficiency among individuals. Pearl millet, Finger millet and Foxtail millet being a low cost millet with higher dietary fiber contents, several micronutrients and phytonutrients with practically no reports of any adverse effect, deserves attention.

The few available studies show that finger millet provides high calcium bioavailability and contributes to higher calcium retention due to its calcium content compared to other staples and reduced bone resorption, hence can exert beneficial effects especially for children, the elderly, and women.

Polyphenols of pearl millet grains may contribute to the prevention, management and treatment of some bone pathogenesis by their positive impact on osteoimmunology revealed by their immunomodulatory effects. The high levels of nutrition ,calcium, phosphorus, several micronutrients, polynutrients in finger millet, pearl millet and their positive results in the existing studies hold a promise for health benefits associated with pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail millet integration into more diets and programs.

Foxtail millet is a farmer friendly and a very healthy crop. It is a good source of calcium, phosphorus, vitamin B12 and iron which is helpful in healthy bone formation thus it reduces the risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture. Despite of having bone heaith benefits it also contributes to digestive well being, heart health and weight management.

Conclusion

Food containing high calcium, potassium, magnesium with vitamins and other minerals, phosphorus, iron, and zinc are preferable for the normal bone metabolism to control osteopenia and osteoporosis. It helps in strengthening bones and also helps to balance Vata. This reduces the risk of Osteoporosis. Various studies have shown that consumption of nutraceutical foods like Finger millet Pearl millet and foxtail millet may provide greater health benefits.

Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures leads to significant decrease in quality of life with increased morbidty, mortality and disability in individual. Finger millets, pearl millet and foxtail millet contribute to high calcium retention and high bioavailblity of calcium and could be useful for healthy bone growth and decrease depletion of bone tissue i.e. asthikshay.

Most of the civilized people have not even heard about millets and much less understand the benefits of millet nutrition therefore such studies will promote the use of millets. As modern medicine contain inorganic calcium compounds such as calcium carbonate, calcium citrate etc which may be of modest bioavailability and can have undesirable effects such as kidney stone formation, constipation, etc. High levels of calcium in finger millet and several polynutrients in pearl millet the improves condition like osteopenia, osteoporosis etc.

References

[1] ICMR annual report. Assessment of prevalence of osteoporosis in adult population in India Multi

centric project 2007.
[2] Aruna Datta: Sarvanga Sundara Commentary on Astanga Hrdaya Sutrasthana, 11/19, Ed. A.M.
Kunte, Chaukhamba, (1982)
[3] Chakrapani Datta, commentator, the Ayurveda dipika commentary, Charaka Samhita Sutra sthana,
13/17 of Agnivesha elaborated by Charaka and Dridhabala,
Edited by Vd.Yadavaji Trikamaji Acharya, Edition reprint2009, Chaukhambha Surbharati
Prakashana, Varanasi.
[4] Shobana S., Krishnaswamy K., Sudha V., et al. Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana L.): a
review of its nutritional properties, processing, and plausible health
benefits. Advances in Food & Nutrition Research . 2013;69:1–39.
[5] www.ayurwiki.org
[6] www.muditainstitute.com
Nutritional properties and plausible benefits of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on bone
metabolism and osteoimmunology a mini-review
[7] Nutritional properties and plausible benefits of Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) on bone
metabolism and osteoimmunology a mini-review
[8] Foxtail millets: Uses, Benefits, Side Effects and More By Dr. Rajeev Singh
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