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Year - 2023Volume - 1Issue - 1Pages - 29-35

Impact of complementary and Alternative Medicine on Sleep Disorders: A systematic review

 14 Jul 2023  509

About Author

Danga S1,
1 1. Associate Professor, Dept of Kaumarbhrutya , Jupiter Ayurveda Medical College, Nagpur

Correspondence Address

Dr.S.K.Danga
Professor, Dept of Kayachikitsa ,
Jupiter Ayurveda Medical College, Nagpur.
E-Mail: sunder147@gmail.com

Contact No. : 9372045685, Email : sunder147@gmail.com

Date of Acceptance : 06 Jul 2023

Date of Publication : 10 Aug 2023

Article ID : SD-IJAY_030

How to cite this article : Danga SK. Impact of complementary and Alternative Medicine on Sleep Disorders: A systematic review. Sanjivani Darshan National Journal of Ayurveda & Yoga 2023;1(1):31-37 http://doi.org/10.55552/SDNJAY.2023.1105

Abstract

According theory of Ayurveda  Ahara, Nidra and Brahmacharya as a Trayoupastambha of life. Anidra can be considered as difficulty in initiation of sleep, reduction in duration of sleep and disturbances during sleep. Acharya  Charaka defines that, if mind gets tired or becomes sedentary then the sensory and motor organs become lazy then one deep into sleep. It means that if mind  draw its attention from its work and whole body get tired due to work and it leads to the Nidra. The Nidra is the one which provide complete relaxation to the body and mind. Many patients suffered from disorders  about Nidra and Nidranasha, but have been unable to find relief due to a lack of extensive studies and treatment.

KEYWORDS: Anidra, Sleep, Ahara, Indriya, Trayoupastambha.

Introduction

Acharya Charaka mentioned the Ahara, Nidra and Brahmacharya as a Trayoupastambha. These three factors which play an important role in the maintenance of health of a living organism thus are termed as Upastambhas.1  The Nidra is the one which provide complete relaxation to the body and mind and thereby it restores the potentials of the individual.The Ahara is mainly concerned with the energy production and maintenance of living tissues (Pitta). The Brahmacharya is concerned with disciplined mode of sexual life and reproduction (Vata).

Nirukti:
The term “Nidra” is feminine gender. Derived from the root “Dra‟ with suffix “Ni” and the root ‘Dra’ means undesired ‘Gatu’ to lead, it is a state which is hated, therefore, it is termed as “Nidra”. Nidra is formed by Sutra ‘Ataschopasarge’ “Nindyate Iti Nidra”.

Definition Nidra(sleep):

  1. Nidra is defined as the temporary loss of contact with Gnanendriya and Karmendriya to the Manas.
  2. Nidra is considered by Charaka is a condition of mind if tired or becomes sedentary then one deep into sleep. Due to the Karma, Mana and Indriya klantata it further leads to Nidra. Therefore, when mana and indriya withdraw from their vishaya leads to sleep. Nidra is nothing but acombined stage of tired mind and body.
  3.  Susruta described the sleep occurs Chetana is vitiated by Tama gunas.2
  4.  According Acharya Vagbhata  if  Manovaha Srotas become hoarded with Sleshma and mind because of exhaustion, when individual fell asleep.
  5. Sharangadhara mentions that Nidra is a state where predominance of Kapha and Tamas is witnessed.

According to Yog Darsanas, there are four Avasthas related to Nidra:3

They are:-

1) Jaagradavastha

2) Svapnavastha

3) Sushuptiavastha

4) Tureeyavastha

1. Jaagradavastha- In this phase the person is able to perceive subject via Panchendriyas.

2. Svapnavastha- This is the phase of sleep in which the person experiences some feelings depending upon what he has done or perceived during the Jaagradavastha.

3. Sushuptiavastha- This also is a phase of sleep but nothing is experienced by the person. Only the life sustaining vital functions (like respiration, circulation etc) happen.

4. Tureeyavastha- Due to increase in Satva Guna the person can control over the  Nidra and there is no effect of Tamoguna on this phase. According to Yoga Sastra, the Nidra is a type of Chittavrtti and it is Abhaava of Manovishaya.

Different types of sleep disordered  in Ayurveda  :

The word Ratrojagarana is explained in various Ayurvedic texts. Various words used to denote Ratrojagarana are presented in the table.

Table no. 1 Showing Synonyms of sleep Disordered in ayurveda

Sl.

No

Paryaya Nama

CS

SS

AH

SA

YR

MN

HS

BS

DN

RN

BR

1

Anidra

+

+

  +

-

+

-

+

+

+

+

-

2

Alpanidra

-

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

Asvapna

+

+

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

Jagarana

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

5

Anidra

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

-

-

-

-

6

Nidravighata

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

7

Nastanidra

+

-

+

-

+

+

-

-

+

+

-

8

Nidradaurbalya

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

Nidrabhramsa

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

Nidrakshaya

-

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11

Nidrabhanga

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

12

Nidravinasha

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

13

Nidrachheda

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

14

Nishijagarana

-

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

15

Nidraviparyaya

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

-

16

Prajagarana

+

-

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

-

+

17

VetAnidra

-

-

+

-

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

  • Alpa Nidra: ‘Alpa’ means small quantity, which refers to reduction in sleep time.
  • Jagarana: ‘Jagarana’means awakening or waking , Nidra Rahita, Nidra Abhava , which refers to the loss of sleep or no sleep.
  • Nidra Kshaya: ‘Kshaya’ means Hrasa, Adarshana, reduction in sleep time.
  • Nidra Bhanga: The word ‘Bhanga’means breaking, splitting, dividing which means disturbances of sleep.

By considering all these synonyms, Anidra can be considered as difficulty in initiation of sleep, reduction in duration of sleep and disturbances during sleep. In the classical texts the term Anidra and Anidra is used frequently as synonymous to one another.

Table No.2: Associate symptoms related with Sleep disorders in ayurveda

Roopa

Charaka

sushruta

 Vagbhata

Vruddha vagbhata

Jrumbha

+

+

+

          +

Angamarda

+

+